Why Is Glucose Elevated In Bacterial Meningitis?

What does glucose in CSF indicate?

Normal results mean that your CSF glucose levels are within normal range.

However, normal results don’t rule out the possibility of infection.

Glucose is often normal in people with viral infections and bacterial meningitis.

Your doctor may order tests if they’re concerned that you may have an infection..

What is normal WBC count in CSF?

The normal white blood cell count is between 0 and 5. The normal red blood cell count is 0. Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.

Is WBC elevated in meningitis?

* In most cases of viral meningitis, the CSF WBC is within the range of 10 to 500 cells/microL, though higher values can be seen with some viruses. Normal CSF WBC counts can be seen in enteroviral meningitis, particularly in young infants.

What is normal glucose level in CSF?

The glucose level in the CSF should be 50 to 80 mg/100 mL (or greater than 2/3 of the blood sugar level). Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories.

Does high protein in CSF mean MS?

Cerebral Spinal Fluid Studies Oligoclonal Immunoglobulin Bands can be identified in the CSF of MS patients via electrophoresis. The overall protein level is also slightly elevated – up to 0.1 g/L. Protein level can be higher if the patient is going through a marked relapse (i.e.,. severe optic neuritis).

What does CSF look like in bacterial meningitis?

Lumbar puncture (LP) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings in bacterial meningitis include the following: Appearance: Clear, cloudy, or purulent. Opening pressure: Elevated (>25 cm H2 O) WBC count: >100 cells/µL (>90% PMN); partially treated cases may have as low as 1 WBC/µL.

Why does glucose decrease in bacterial meningitis?

The reason for the reduced glucose levels associated with bacterial meningitis was believed to be the need for glucose as fuel by infiltrating immune cells in response to infection. However, the possibility that the bacteria itself could manipulate glucose concentrations in the brain had not been explored before now.

Why is protein elevated in bacterial meningitis?

The elevation in protein is thought to be due to damage to the blood-brain barrier and leakage of serum proteins into the CSF. CSF proteins are usually highest in bacterial meningitis and can reach 1,000 mg/dL.

In which conditions does CSF glucose decrease?

Hypoglycorrhachia, a low glucose level in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is commonly associated with infections such as bacterial, fungal, and tuberculous meningitis 1. When tests for these infectious causes are negative, the diagnosis can be elusive.

What is considered high protein in CSF?

EVALUATION. Spinal fluid protein concentration is usually moderately elevated, with concentrations in the 150 to 300 mg/100 mL range. There are no qualitative abnormalities in the protein profile.

Is white blood cell count high with meningitis?

In partially treated bacterial meningitis, the CSF WBC counts and protein levels are typically higher than was found in the case scenario (5).

What does elevated RBC in CSF mean?

Finding red blood cells in the CSF may be a sign of bleeding. However, red blood cells in the CSF may also be due to the spinal tap needle hitting a blood vessel. Additional conditions which this test may help diagnose include: Arteriovenous malformation (cerebral)

What is nuchal rigidity a sign of?

A third sign used to diagnose meningitis is called nuchal rigidity. Nuchal rigidity is an inability to flex the neck forward due to rigidity of the neck muscles. Similar to Kernig’s sign, research has shown that many people with meningitis don’t have the Brudzinski sign or nuchal rigidity.

Why is glucose high in CSF?

Chemical meningitis, inflammatory conditions, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and hypoglycemia also cause hypoglycorrhachia (low glucose level in CSF). Elevated levels of glucose in the blood is the only cause of having an elevated CSF glucose level.

What does high protein and glucose in CSF mean?

An abnormal protein level in the CSF suggests a problem in the central nervous system. Increased protein level may be a sign of a tumor, bleeding, nerve inflammation, or injury. A blockage in the flow of spinal fluid can cause the rapid buildup of protein in the lower spinal area.

What does high WBC in CSF mean?

An increase of white blood cells indicates infection, inflammation, or bleeding into the cerebrospinal fluid. Some causes include: Abscess. Encephalitis. Hemorrhage.

What causes high lymphocytes in CSF?

The term “Aseptic Meningitis” denotes a clinical syndrome with a predominance of lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), with no common bacterial agents identified in the CSF. Viral meningitis is considered the main cause of lymphocyte meningitis. There are other etiologies of an infectious nature.

What are the changes in CSF sample in bacterial meningitis?

Typical CSF abnormalities associated with bacterial meningitis include the following: Turbidity. Increased opening pressure (>180 mm water) Pleocytosis (usually of polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes); WBC counts > 10 cells/mm.