Question: What Does Vertical Transmission Mean Quizlet?

Which of the following is an example of vertical transmission of a disease?

Vertical transmission: Passage of a disease-causing agent (pathogen) from mother to baby during the period immediately before and after birth.

Transmission might occur across the placenta, in the breast milk, or through direct contact during or after birth.

For example, HIV can be a vertically transmitted pathogen..

Which infectious disease is transmitted vertically?

Coxsackievirus. Chickenpox (caused by varicella zoster virus) Chlamydia. HIV.

What are the five means of transmission of infection?

The transmission of microorganisms can be divided into the following five main routes: direct contact, fomites, aerosol (airborne), oral (ingestion), and vectorborne. Some microorganisms can be transmitted by more than one route.

What happens in the vertical transmission of a disease?

Vertical transmission refers to generational transmission of viruses from parents to their offspring. HIV-1, e.g., can be acquired in utero (via breaks in the placental barrier or transcytosis of cell-associated virus), during delivery (intrapartum), or via breastfeeding.

What is vector borne transmission of disease?

Vector-Borne Disease: Disease that results from an infection transmitted to humans and other animals by blood-feeding anthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas. Examples of vector-borne diseases include Dengue fever, West Nile Virus, Lyme disease, and malaria.

When a baby is born with an infectious disease transmitted by the mother this is known as which kind of transmission?

Mother to Child Transmission is called vertical transmission or perinatal transmission. It occurs when HIV is transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy, labor and delivery. Many Infections can be transmitted from mother to child which include Congenital Infections, Perinatal and Postnatal.

What is the most common means of transmission of infectious disease?

Contact transmission is the most common form of transmitting diseases and virus. There are two types of contact transmission: direct and indirect. Direct contact transmission occurs when there is physical contact between an infected person and a susceptible person.

What is the key difference between vertical transmission and horizontal transfer?

The main difference between vertical and horizontal gene transfer is that vertical gene transfer is the inheritance of DNA from the parent organisms whereas horizontal gene transfer is the acquisition of DNA from unrelated organisms.

Which of the following is an example of horizontal disease transmission?

Examples include acute bacterial infection; viruses such as HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), West Nile virus, and rabies; chronic fungi (e.g., coccidiomycosis, histoplasmosis); and parasites (e.g., Toxoplasma gondii, Strongyloides).

What is vertical and horizontal transmission?

In general, transmission of viruses can occur through two pathways: horizontal and vertical transmission. In horizontal transmission, viruses are transmitted among individuals of the same generation, while vertical transmission occurs from mothers to their offspring.

What does horizontal transmission mean?

Horizontal transmission is the transmission of organisms between biotic and/or abiotic members of an ecosystem that are not in a parent-progeny relationship. This concept has been generalized to include transmissions of infectious agents, symbionts, and cultural traits between humans.

Is vertical transmission direct or indirect?

Most health and government organizations classify infectious diseases as being transmitted ‘directly’ (e.g. sexual, vertical, skin-to-skin contact) and ‘indirectly’ (e.g. airborne, vector-borne, vehicle-borne, water- and food-borne) [13–15].

Which parasite can be transmitted Transplacentally?

It has been shown that other protozoan parasites, such as Plasmodium malariae,28 Toxoplasma gondii,29–31 and Trypanosoma cruzi,32 can cross the placental wall and affect both the mother and the neonate.

What is the difference between vertical and horizontal transmission of infection?

In general, transmission of viruses can occur through two pathways: horizontal and vertical transmission. In horizontal transmission, viruses are transmitted among individuals of the same generation, while vertical transmission occurs from mothers to their offspring.

What does vertical transmission mean?

Vertical transmission refers to generational transmission of viruses from parents to their offspring. HIV-1, e.g., can be acquired in utero (via breaks in the placental barrier or transcytosis of cell-associated virus), during delivery (intrapartum), or via breastfeeding.

What is direct transmission?

In direct transmission, an infectious agent is transferred from a reservoir to a susceptible host by direct contact or droplet spread. Direct contact occurs through skin-to-skin contact, kissing, and sexual intercourse. Direct contact also refers to contact with soil or vegetation harboring infectious organisms.

Which pathogen can be transmitted Transplacentally?

In this review, we focus on proposed antenatal mechanisms of transplacental transmission of known “TORCH” pathogens, which includes Toxoplasma gondii, other (Listeria monocytogenes, Treponema pallidium, parvovirus, HIV, varicella zoster virus, amongst others), Rubella, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Herpesviruses (HSV) 1 …

Which bacteria can cross placenta?

Maternal infections caused by most organisms which can cross the placenta (including rubella, mumps, poliomyelitis, smallpox, rubeola, syphilis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, and infections caused by S typhosa, V fetus, L monocytogenes, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus) may result in abortion or stillbirth.